Kim, J. S., Hemphill, L., Troyer, M. T., Thomson, J. M., Jones, S. M., LaRusso, M. & Donovan, S. (in press). Engaging struggling adolescent readers to improve reading skills. Reading Research Quarterly.

LaRusso, M. D., Donovan, S., & Snow, C. (2016). Implementation challenges for Tier One and Tier Two school-based programs for early adolescents. In B. Foorman (Ed.), Challenges to implementing effective reading intervention in schools. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 154, 11–30.


Osborne, J., Donovan, B. M., Henderson, J. B., MacPherson, A. C., & Andrew, W. (2016). Arguing From Evidence in Middle School Science: 24 Activities for Productive Talk and Deeper Learning. Corwin.


Dobbs, C. L. (2014). Signaling organization and stance: academic language use in middle grade persuasive writing. Reading and Writing, 27, 1327-1352.

Dobbs, C. L. & Kearns, D. (2016). Using new vocabulary in writing: Exploring how word and learner characteristics relate to the likelihood that writers use newly taught vocabulary. Reading and Writing, 29, 1817-1844.

Duhaylongsod, L., Snow, C. E., Selman, R., & Donovan, M.S. (2015). Toward disciplinary literacy: Dilemmas and challenges in designing history curriculum to support middle school students. Harvard Educational Review, 85, 587-608.

LaRusso, M. D., Donovan, S., & Snow, C. (2016). Implementation challenges for Tier One and Tier Two school-based programs for early adolescents. In B. Foorman (Ed.), Challenges to implementing effective reading intervention in schools. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 154, 11–30.

Phillips Galloway, E., & Uccelli, P. (2015). Modeling the relationship between lexico-syntactic and discourse organization skills in middle grade writers: Insights into later productive language skills that support academic writing. Reading and Writing, 28(6), 797-828.

Snow, C. E. (2014). Extended discourse in first and second language acquisition: A challenge and an opportunity. Journal of Japanese Linguistics, 30.

Snow, C. E. (2014). Language, literacy, and the needs of the multilingual child. Perspectives in Education, 32, 11-20.

Snow, C. E. (in press). Motivation and engagement in language and literacy development. In E. Segers & P. van den Broek (Eds.), Developmental Perspectives in Written Language and Literacy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Surrain, S., Duhaylongsod, L., Selman, R., & Snow, C. E. (in press). Using narrative thinking in argumentative writing. In E. Veneziano & A. Nicolopoulou (Eds.), Narrative, literacy and other skills: Studies in intervention. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.


Phillips Galloway, E., Stude, J., & Uccelli, P. (2015). Negotiating communicative practices in schools: Student’s oral and written reflections on the academic register. Linguistics & Education, 31, 221-237.

Snow, C. E. (2014). Input to interaction to instruction: Three key shifts in the history of child language research. Journal of Child Language, 41, (Supplement 1), 117-124.

Snow, C. E., Uccelli, P., & White, C. (2013). Bedingungen und bedeutung des erwerbs von bildungssprache durch heranwachsende. (The conditions for and significance of children’s acquisition of academic language). In C. Rosebrook & A. Bertschi-Kaufmann (Eds.), Literalitat Erfassen: Bildungspolitisch, Kulturell, Individuell (29-39). Base: Beltz Juventa.

Uccelli, P., Barr, C. D., Dobbs, C. L., Phillips Galloway, E., Meneses, A., & Sánchez, E. (2015). Core Academic Language Skills (CALS): An expanded operational construct and a novel instrument to chart school-relevant language proficiency in per-adolescent and adolescent learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36(5), 1077-1109. doi: 10.1017/S0142716400006X

Uccelli, P., & Galloway, E. P. (2016). Academic language across content areas: Lessons from an innovative assessment and from students' reflections about language. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. doi: 10.1002/jaal.553

Uccelli, P., Galloway, E. P., Barr, C., Meneses, A., & Dobbs, C. (2015). Beyond vocabulary: Exploring cross-disciplinary academic language proficiency and its association with reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 50(3), 261-359. doi: 10.1002/rrq.104

Uccelli, P., & Meneses, A. (2015). Lenguaje académico: construcción y validación de un instrumento para medir habilidades de lenguaje académico en estudiantes de primaria. Invited paper in Special Edited Volume, M. Brisk & P. Proctor, Miríada Hispánica, 10, 177-202.


Phillips Galloway, E. (2016). The Development of Core Academic Language and Reading Comprehension in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Learners (Doctoral dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge.


Goldman, S., & Snow, C. E. (2015). Adolescent literacy: Development and instruction. In A. Pollatsek & R. Treiman (Eds.), Handbook on Reading (463-478). Oxford University Press.

Goldman, S., Snow, C. E., & Vaughn, S. (2016). Common themes in teaching reading for understanding: Lessons from three projects. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. doi: 10.1002/jaal.586

LaRusso, M., Kim, H. Y., Selman, R., Uccelli, P., Dawson, T., Jones, S., . . . Snow, C. (2016). Contributions of academic language, perspective taking, and complex reasoning to deep reading comprehension. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 9(2), 201-222.


Elizabeth, T., Anderson, T., Snow, C. E., & Selman, R. (2012). Academic discussions: An analysis of instructional discourse and an argument for an integrative assessment framework. American Education Research Journal, 49(6): 1214-1250. doi: 10.3102/0002831212456066

O’Connor, C., & Snow, C. E. (in press). Classroom discourse: What do we need to know for research and for practice? In M. Schober, A. Britt, & D. Rapp, (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Processes, 2nd Edition.


Duhaylongsod, L. J. (2016). Promoting Argumentation Skills in Urban Middle Schools: Studies of Teachers and Students Using a Debate-Based Social Studies Curriculum (Doctoral dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge.

Hsiao, L. (2015). Moving the discussion forward through surprises and dilemmas: Teacher learning in academic discussion (Doctoral dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge.


Diazgranados, S., Selman, R. L., & Dionne, M. (in press). Acts of social perspective taking: A functional construct and the validation of a performance measure for early adolescents. Social Development.

Hsin, L., & Snow, C. E. (in press). From theory of mind to social perspective-taking: A benefit of bilingualism in academic writing. Reading and Writing.

*For a full list of publications for Word Generation, please see

This site was originally prepared for districts and teachers who partnered with us throughout the project. While we have updated the text, many of the videos included on this site were prepared during the launch of the study. Although the project has come to a close, we are keeping the site and related videos available for those who are interested to learn more about the project.

The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R305F100026 to the Strategic Education Research Partnership as part of the Reading for Understanding Research Initiative. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education.

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